Wednesday, 14 February 2018

Doors and Windows

Doors

A door is the openable barrier provided in the wall for the entry and exit to the inside of a room or building. A door allow air and light to pass through when open and serves privacy to the people and insulation against noise and sound when closed. An internal door provide access to various rooms, kitchen, dinning, toilets and other internal portions of a building and an exterior or front door allows people to enter the building or house. A door is made up of two parts (i) door frame and (ii) door shutter. A door frame is the outer edge fixed in the wall opening with the help of hold fast and surrounds the door shutter in between to keep it in position.

Windows

A window is the openable barrier provided at certain height in the wall to allow air and light from natural atmosphere to enter the room and allow people to see outside. Windows are provided for good ventilation and to keep the rooms environment natural. A window is also made up of two parts (i) window frame and (ii) window shutter. The window frame is fixed in the wall opening with the help of hold fast and keep window shutter in position.

Parts of doors and windows

Doors and Windows are made up of several parts. These parts are termed as followings :



1. Frame

It is the enclosure formed by joining vertical and horizontal members in which shutters are fitted. It is the outer edge surrounding the shutter to keep it in position.

2. Shutter

Shutters are openable parts which are hinged in frame for easy opening and closing. It consists of styles, panels and rails.

3. Head 

This is the horizontal part of frame provided at the top of the shutter. 

4. Sill

Sills are provided in window frame. This is the lowermost horizontal parts of a window frame which acts as a base for window shutter.

5. Horn

Horn are the horizontal extended portion of the head provided for fixing the door frame to the wall opening. The length of horn is kept about 10 to 15 cm.

6. Style 

Style is the outside member of the shutter of a door or window.

7. Top Rail

Top rail is the top horizontal member of the shutter below the head of the door frame.

8. Lock Rail

Lock rail is the middle horizontal member of a door shutter in which locking arrangement is provided.

9. Bottom Rail

Bottom rail is the lowermost horizontal member of a shutter above the floor level incase of door and above sill incase of window. 

10. Frieze Rail

Frieze rail is the horizontal member of a shutter provided between the top rail and the bottom rail.

11. Panel 

Panel is the member of shutter enclosed between the adjacent rails.

12. Mullion 

Mullion is the vertical member of a frame which divides the door and window symmetrically in two parts.

13. Transom

Transom is the horizontal member of window shutter provided below the head of the frame. It is the horizontal glass window above the vertical window opening.

14. Hold Fast 

Hold fast is the fastener used to fix the door frame to the wall opening. It is made up of mild steel and generally bent into Z-shape.